Genesis Metals is one of three Resource Opportunities sponsor companies.
Genesis Metals is building ounces and grade at its Chevrier project in Quebec’s Abitibi Greenstone Belt, as Phase 1 drill results outline growing zones of higher-grade material within the existing Main Zone deposit. The drill results are changing the profile of the deposit, which hosts current indicated mineral resources of 395,000 ounces (8.5 Mt averaging 1.45 g/t gold; cutoffs 0.5 g/t open pit and 0.95 g/t underground) and inferred mineral resources of 254,000 ounces (5.9 Mt averaging 1.33 g/t gold; cutoffs 0.5 g/t open pit and 0.95 g/t underground).
The latest drill intercepts are well above those average grades, with highlights including: GM20-63: 9.71 g/t Au over 3.65 metres (within 76 metres of 1.93 g/t) GM20-64: 9.73 g/t Au over 4.5 metres (within 84 metres of 1.65 g/t) GM20-64: 9.64 g/t Au over 2.3 metres GM20-64: 14.4 g/t Au over 2.2 metres GM20-65: 5.57 g/t Au over 3.2 metres
Those intercepts were part of the second and final batch of assays from the 2,500-metre drill program at Chevrier that focused on southwest and northeast portions of the Main Zone. Most of the current resource estimate is contained within the Main Zone, with the East Zone hosting a small Inferred resource. Genesis used a new 3D model to better understand distribution and controls on high-grade gold mineralization.
Genesis CEO David Terry and his team are now reviewing the drill hole data as they evaluate the best targets for follow-up drilling, which is fully funded. The next drill program will likely take place in late summer or early fall; a further 5,500 metres of drilling is planned for the remainder of 2020.
Each of the Phase 2 intercepts above starts within 200 metres of surface, and holes 63 and 64 hit high-grade within wider mineralized envelopes. That bodes well for future inclusion in the pit-constrained resource once Genesis updates the Chevrier resource estimate. Hole 65 also hit deeper gold mineralization: 5.14 g/t Au over 3.95 metres from 213.3 metres downhole, and 7.88 g/t Au over 3.1 metres from 227.5 metres downhole.
Those assays followed Phase 1 drill results from Chevrier announced on June 2 that included:
8.92 g/t Au over 1.0 metres (within 1.79 g/t over 7.35 metres)
3.99 g/t Au over 3.0 metres
10.2 g/t Au over 1.15 metres (within 1.36 g/t over 19.7 metres)
“We look forward to additional drilling to better define this new high-grade component of the deposit, and to results from the ongoing surface exploration program focused on advancing priority targets elsewhere on the large Chevrier project,” Terry stated.
Likely targets include further definition of higher-grade shoots within and below the existing Main Zone deposit, as well as several high-priority targets elsewhere at Chevrier identified through last year’s property-wide glacial till survey. Ground prospecting to further refine those targets continues.
The biggest beneficiaries in this emerging gold bull market are juniors that can hit meaningful drill results containing high-grade gold. The Phase 1 drill program has delivered that for Genesis, with several hits that are multiples of average grades at the existing deposit. The company’s $15-million valuation — less than many pre-drill juniors — is backstopped by Chevrier’s existing gold resource and now, growing higher-grade zones.
The widths and grades of Genesis’s Phase 1 drill program compare favourably to the mineralization at well-known Canadian gold deposits including SSR Mining’s Seabee underground gold mining operation in northern Saskatchewan. Seabee’s average reserve grades are just above 10 g/t gold and the company is underground mining widths of 1-2 metres.
Genesis, of course, is an earlier-stage play. But the company’s shares remain under the radar, with the stock trading at or below where it spent most of 2019. That’s despite the developing high-grade zones as well as these positive features:
Backing of the serially successful Discovery Group; Located on a highway and near rail lines in the eastern Abitibi greenstone belt in a thriving mining district (Chibougamau) with other high-grade discoveries; More than $2 million in the treasury for further drilling later this year. Fresh approach under the leadership of Dr. David Terry and property-wide investigation and analysis, starting with soils.
Chibougamau is a rich gold mining district of high-grade discoveries and historical mines. More than 6.7 million ounces of gold has been mined in the area and there are plenty more ounces in the ground — including at high grades. Just southwest of Chevrier is the Monster Lake JV, where IAMGOLD and JV partner TomaGold have delineated 433,300 ounces of gold at 12.14 g/t Au.
Team, backers, project and neighbourhood — it all matters. So does price of entry. There’s a lot of money chasing a small number of hot junior stocks that have been running hard. But the big money is made positioning in promising plays that have yet to move. Genesis’s current valuation may spell opportunity for investors confident that this top team will identify more high-grade gold, both within the existing deposit and through discoveries elsewhere on the 290-sq-km property.
Disclosure: Genesis Metals is one of three Resource Opportunities sponsor companies and James Kwantes owns Genesis Metals shares, which makes him biased. This article is presented for information purposes and is not investment advice. All investors need to do their own due diligence.
Well-run project generators are brick houses in a speculative corner of the market, where the winds of commodity prices and dilution are often house wreckers. Their share prices are typically backstopped by healthy treasuries, royalties and equity stakes, as well as extensive claims holdings. They are businesses, not cash-burning lottery tickets like most junior explorecos.
But for many speculators, that level of diversification is a knock. Those bricks provide stability but weigh down the “rocket ship” when a junior exploration company hits a bona fide high-grade gold discovery. Project generators typically retain only limited exposure to discoveries through royalties or small equity stakes.
The picture changes completely, however, when project generators make a high-grade discovery on a wholly owned project. Azimut Exploration (AZM-V) proved it in January with their Patwon gold discovery at the Elmer property in Quebec. Azimut is Quebec’s largest claims holder, diversified across metals and known for its technical savvy. On January 14, the project generator announced multiple high-grade gold intercepts at the James Bay project, including 12.43 g/t Au over 6 metres and 27.36 g/t Au over 4.7 metres.
The day before the discovery was announced, Azimut shares closed at 50 cents (@ $31M market cap). The stock rocketed to $1.50 the following day and remains at about that level, despite the uncertainty and tough market conditions that persist in the junior mining complex. COVID-19 forced the suspension of Azimut’s follow-up 6,000-metre diamond drill program at Patwon.
Azimut closely resembles another project generator with a wholly owned gold project that will be drilled this summer: Strategic Metals (SMD-V, SMDZF-OTC). Strategic, Yukon’s largest claims holder, is cashed-up to drill its Mount Hinton high-grade gold prospect in the Yukon Territory’s Keno Hill district. Strategic plans to spend about $3 million to explore Mt. Hinton this season, including up to 6,000 metres of drilling (diamond and RAB).
The program, of course, is dependent on how the Coronavirus pandemic plays out in the coming months. In Yukon, mining and exploration have been designated an essential service.
Strategic shares currently trade at about 35 cents, for a $34-million market capitalization. It’s a far cry from the $4.35 level ($381M market cap) that the stock hit in 2011. That share price was propelled by gold’s rise to US$1,900 an ounce — less than $200 an ounce higher than current levels — as well as ATAC’s high-grade gold discoveries at the Rackla property in Yukon (ATAC is part of the Strategic Exploration Group).
Doug Eaton (right), Strategic’s CEO and principal of Archer Cathro, the storied Yukon geological consultancy, was in the thick of it during ATAC’s high-grade discoveries.
But the veteran geologist says he’s more excited about Mount Hinton because of the volume of high-grade gold found at surface at such an early stage, during what appears to be a perfect storm for the gold price.
“Mount Hinton is the same kind of setup but the project is much more readily accessible than Rackla and it’s earlier-stage,” Eaton said. “It’s much more exciting than ATAC was at this stage. We have a chance of a major gold discovery under the till or talus.”
Eaton’s comments about Mount Hinton’s possibilities sound like fairly typical Howe Street-style promotion. But a couple of key differences make his observations worth a closer examination:
His comments say much more about Mt. Hinton’s prospectivity than they do the potential of ATAC’s Rackla project. Strategic holds a 6.4% stake in ATAC and is incentivized to see the company succeed. Eaton remains a believer that the Rackla deposits will one day produce tens of millions of ounces of gold.
Eaton, a geologist, has been working in the Yukon for almost 50 years. He has an almost-encyclopedic knowledge of Yukon mining projects, which helps Strategic snap up forgotten but highly prospective projects. Eaton has been involved in several of the Territory’s major discoveries, including the Casino copper-gold porphyry (now being developed by Western Copper and Gold).
REWIND: In the summer of 2017, Strategic sold six properties including Mt. Hinton to a private company called Territory Metals. The terms of the deal hinted that Mt. Hinton was no ordinary prospect — in addition to a 2% NSR, the agreement included a 10% NSR on any small-scale high-grade gold production and a $1.5-million milestone payment if Territory identified a 1-million-oz gold equivalent resource on any of the properties.
Territory’s go-public plans fizzled and Strategic got the property back. Archer Cathro geologists hit the ground hard in summer 2018. They extended a large geochemical soil anomaly and found multiple rock samples with high-grade gold samples that assayed greater than 9 g/t gold.
Last summer, Strategic hit paydirt with a prospecting program focused on the 3.5-km by 1.5-km gold-in-soil anomaly. One rock sample came back with a bonanza-grade assay: 2,340 g/t gold and 597 g/t silver. Follow up prospecting discovered visible gold at this site (the first reported native gold on the property) and subsequent samples containing visible gold were not assayed. Other chip samples also carried high gold and silver values, including:
42.4 g/t gold & 94.2 g/t silver
9.9 g/t Au & 5.45 g/t Ag over 1 m
24 g/t Au & 36.1 g/t Ag over 1.25 m
23.5 g/t Au & 1,720 g/t Ag
202.0 g/t Au & 2,020 g/t Ag
The property has not seen much exploration despite its proximity to Alexco’s Keno Hill project — Mt. Hinton is just three kilometres south of Alexco’s Bellekeno deposit. That’s largely because of road access difficulties. But the situation has improved dramatically in recent years thanks to the thriving Granite Creek placer gold camp, located at the base of Mount Hinton. Two placer operators are pulling out multi-ounce gold nuggets and the Granite Creek drainage has become one of Yukon’s hottest gold camps.
Strategic brought in excavators last year to build a road network on the property, an effort that will continue this year once the snow melts. The planned 6,000-metre drill program is a large one for Strategic but so is the size of the potential prize. “To find this material at surface is remarkable,” Eaton remarked. Strategic geologist Steve Israel has now mapped three separate phases of mineralization on the property. More phases means higher volumes of mineralizing fluids, which can lead to more gold.
With Mount Hinton a potential near-term catalyst, Strategic’s share price — and downside — is backstopped by a healthy treasury of $6.8 million and large equity stakes, as well as its extensive Yukon claims portfolio. Significant equity stakes include:
ATAC Resources (6.4%): high-grade gold deposits on the Rackla property
Rockhaven Resources (36.3%): h-g 1.2M oz Au/28M oz Ag deposit, on a road
Terra CO2 (62.6%) – pending patent on non-CO2 generating cement replacement
Precipitate Gold (24.3%) – Barrick just signed a 70% earn-in agreement for Precipitate’s Pueblo Grande project beside Barrick’s Pueblo Viejo mine in Dominican Republic
Silver Range Resources (17.7%) – project generator focused on high-grade prospects in Nevada, NWT, Nunavut
With gold moving in the right direction, the Mt. Hinton drill program positions Strategic to capture the shareholder value that can result from a high-grade discovery. It’s an outcome Eaton has seen before — and why he kept Mt. Hinton in the portfolio when it came back, rather than optioning it.
“We’ve turned down some pretty good offers for Mt. Hinton,” he remarked. “That’s because everybody wants 100% of it.”
Gold is on the move as governments around the world fire up currency printing presses to counter the economic effects of COVID-19. That lift has not yet translated to the junior sector, despite gold hitting all-time highs in most major world currencies. Eaton believes the malaise of the past several years is partly a generational phenomenon — younger retail investors simply haven’t experienced the large multibagger wins that tend to drive money into the junior space.
“You have a generation of investors who have done well in mining but who are too old,” Eaton said. “The generations of younger investors haven’t benefited the way people who are older did in prior bull markets.” That may be about to change.
A high-grade gold discovery at Mount Hinton could trigger a rush to get into Strategic shares, if the action on Aug. 21, 2019 is any indication. That day, Strategic announced high-grade assays including the bonanza-grade rock sample. The stock shot from 39 cents to 47 cents on multiples of average volume. It could be just a taste of what’s to come if Strategic drills a high-grade gold discovery at Mount Hinton this summer.
Strategic Metals (SMD-V, SMDZF-OTC) Price: 0.35 Shares out: 96.6 million (108.85M fully diluted) Market cap: $33.8 million
Disclosure: I own Strategic Metals shares and Strategic is one of three Resource Opportunities sponsor companies. This article is not intended as financial advice and all investors need to conduct their own due diligence and/or consult an investment advisor.
Nevada is known as “The Silver State,” a nod to the 1859 discovery of the Comstock Lode. That rich silver endowment led to Nevada’s statehood, and profits from silver mining helped the North come out on top in the American Civil War.
But the discovery of the state’s rich gold districts, including the Carlin and Cortez trends, a century later quickly made Nevada one of the world’s premier gold mining jurisdictions. Those two districts alone have a combined gold endowment of more than 250 million ounces (production + reserves). And gold is the precious metal that remains Nevada’s largest export by dollar value.
However, U.S. Census Bureau statistics show that Nevada’s gold output is slipping. Gold exports of about $4.9 billion in 2018 dropped to $2.7 billion last year, a 45% decrease.
And Nevada is not the only gold-rich jurisdiction with a declining production profile. New discoveries are needed to replace the ounces being mined. And one of the best places to look for gold is on projects that have been orphaned by larger companies or by exploration companies that have shifted their focus elsewhere.
The latter is the story with the past-producing Griffon project at the southern end of Nevada’s Cortez trend. Fremont Gold (FRE-V, USTDF-OTCBB) purchased Griffon and its 89 unpatented mining claims from Liberty Gold (LGD-T) in December 2019, then raised $1.48 million to drill it. The project was orphaned by Liberty (formerly Pilot Gold), which is drilling out its Black Pine oxide gold project in Idaho. Griffon is southeast of Fiore Gold’s (F-V) Pan mine and Contact Gold’s (C-V) past-producing Green Springs heap-leach gold mine.
Fremont plans to drill 2,000 metres at Griffon, beginning in June. Twenty-six drill sites are currently permitted and the project is bonded. Fremont plans to drill a number of untested targets in the hopes of making a new discovery at Griffon.
Griffon was first drilled in 1988. By 1997 two oxide gold deposits had been delineated, at Discovery Ridge and Hammer Ridge. Over the next three years, Alta operated as a small producer, mining oxide gold from those deposits at average grades of 1.03 g/t in a heap-leach operation. That’s well above average grades of 0.6 to 0.7 g/t being heap-leach mined at typical Nevada oxide gold operations.
Alta’s focus was production, not exploration. The company did not thoroughly explore the property and almost all of the holes they drilled were less than 100 metres deep. Fremont has assembled a crack team of geologists to narrow down targets at Griffon:
Clay Newton, Fremont’s VP Exploration and a Phd structural geologist who brings fresh eyes to the project
Andy Wallace, Ph.D., a Carlin expert and co-discoverer of five Nevada gold mines as a principal of Cordex
Jamie Robertson, Ph.D., Alta’s former exploration manager and a regional expert on Nevada’s southern Cortez trend.
Target areas at Griffon include the untested three-kilometre long Blackrock fault to the east of the Hammer Ridge deposit (one of the two deposits mined by Alta Gold Corp.), the Pilot Shale horizon, and a number of geochemical anomalies. In addition, potential remains in and around the two past-producing open pits.
Drilling by Alta in an area southwest of Hammer Ridge hints at the property’s potential. Alta hit near-surface gold mineralization in many holes, including 57.9 metres of 0.86 g/t gold. Other drill holes in this area — all of them within 100 metres of surface — included:
25.9 metres of 1.1 g/t Au
36.6m of 0.93 g/t
24.4m of 0.79 g/t
Last summer, Fremont sold its Gold Canyon project to McEwen Mining for 300,000 McEwen common shares in order to focus on securing more advanced-stage assets. The company’s first move was to option Cobb Creek from Contact Gold. Located in Elko county, Nevada, Cobb Creek is an advanced project with a historical gold resource that hasn’t been drilled since 1992. Although Cobb is an intriguing exploration project, Fremont plans to focus on Griffon this exploration season. The company also has the North Carlin, Hurricane and Goldrun projects in Nevada.
Gold is holding steady above US$1,600 an ounce and doing its job as a safe haven. The precious metal is also, increasingly, a buttress against the impending waves of money-printing as governments globally respond to economic paralysis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.
Gold producers continue to rely on exploration companies to find the next economic ore bodies. That increases the appeal of well-managed juniors poised to create shareholder value with the drill. Fremont Gold fits the bill as it prepares to drill for discovery at Griffon. Insiders have been adding to their stakes, in both the public market and private placements. I have also been buying shares at these price levels.
Fremont Gold (FRE-V, USTDF-OTCBB) Price: 0.06 Shares out: 81.5 million (121.2M f-d) Market cap: $4.9 million
Disclosure: I own Fremont Gold shares and Fremont is one of three Resource Opportunities sponsor companies. Fremont is a speculative, high-risk exploration stock that may not be suitable for all investors. This article is not intended as financial advice and all investors should conduct their own due diligence and/or consult an investment advisor.
Drilling later this year will test new targets identified by last year’s property-wide soil sampling.
By James Kwantes Resource Opportunities
For veteran speculators, the latest hits to junior mining share prices feels like deja vu all over again. Sentiment is gloomy and market capitalizations are depressed. But gold in U.S. dollar terms is still up more than 25% year-over-year. And US$1,500 gold translates to more than $2,150 Canadian, an exceptional price for Canadian projects whose expenses are measured mostly in loonies.
Gold producers that deplete their reserves with every shift and every scoop still rely on junior exploration companies to find the deposits that will replenish their ore. Most juniors, meanwhile, had yet to respond even BEFORE the Coronavirus corrections — which has further pummelled the sector. Expectations are very low, along with share prices.
For exploration companies with strong management and backing, a flush treasury and potential for high-grade discoveries, it’s not a bad setup. Genesis Metals (GIS-V, GGISF-OTC) fits the bill. The Discovery Group company has $3.5 million in the treasury to drill its flagship Chevrier project in Quebec’s Chibougamau mining district. Chevrier is located in the eastern portion of the prolific Abitibi Greenstone Belt (180M oz of historical gold production).
Genesis is drilling an initial 2,500 metres (10 holes) at Chevrier, part of a planned 8,000-metre drill program this year. The initial program is designed to tap into high-grade shoots within the Chevrier Main zone deposit, expanding the higher-grade domain. Genesis’s market cap of about $7.9 million is backstopped by existing gold resources at Chevrier totalling 395,000 ounces Indicated grading 1.45 g/t Au and 297,000 ounces Inferred at an average grade of 1.33 g/t, at the Chevrier Main and East zones.
The company has already identified high-grade areas within the deposit — assays announced on January 22, 2018 included 8.73 g/t over 21.35 metres and 4.26 g/t over 19.4 metres at the Main Zone. But those results went unappreciated with gold trading at US$1,330 an ounce on its way down to $1,200. Later this year, Genesis plans to test targets elsewhere on the 295-sq-km property that were identified through last year’s property-wide glacial till survey.
Overseeing the exploration program is new CEO David Terry, an economic geologist who was appointed President and CEO on Dec. 2, 2019 (Jeff Sundar remains as Executive Director). Terry obtained a PhD in Geology from Western University in Ontario. He’s also well-schooled in the vagaries of bull and bear market mining cycles, through decades in the industry running projects — both large and small — for majors and helming explorecos. Terry is currently a director of several active exploration companies including Golden Arrow Resources, Aftermath Silver and Great Bear Resources. Great Bear, also a Discovery Group company, is drilling high-grade gold along kilometres of strike at its Dixie project in Red Lake, Ontario.
For Terry, the Great Bear directorship is a kind of return to Red Lake. His first summer job in exploration included mapping and sampling in the prolific district for a large mining company called Goldfields while he attended Western in the 1980s. He later worked for several years as a contract geologist with Cominco (which sponsored his PhD thesis) in Alaska, followed by a stint with Hemlo Gold exploring back in the Abitibi.
After obtaining his PhD, Terry worked for Westmin Resources then Boliden, as a geologist and project manager. When Boliden exited Canada with the mining sector in a post Bre-X slump, Terry took a position as a Regional Geologist for the B.C. Geological Survey in southeastern B.C. for three years. He spoke at the closing ceremony for Teck’s legendary Sullivan mine, which operated for nearly a century and produced 160 million tonnes grading 12% zinc/lead and 67 g/t silver. Since 2004 he has worked in management, director and advisory roles with a number of juniors exploring and advancing precious and base metal projects in both North American and a number of Latin American countries.
Terry joined the Great Bear board in July 2016, before the Dixie project was the company’s flagship. Great Bear’s mineralized LP fault is now recognized as one of the best gold discoveries of recent years, globally. But Terry remembers when the team operated in relative obscurity, with GBR shares trading for dimes not dollars.
As for Genesis, adopting a go-slow approach in 2019 laid the groundwork for an active 2020. Instead of drilling in the depths of a bear market, former President and CEO Jeff Sundar focused on building out the team and raising a war chest. Genesis joined the Discovery Group of companies and added Discovery principals John Robins and Jim Paterson as strategic advisors. The Discovery Group has an impressive record of wins in recent years, including the $520-million sale of Kaminak Gold to Goldcorp and the $117-million sale of Northern Empire Resources to Coeur. Rob Carpenter, the cofounder and former CEO of Kaminak, also came on as a strategic advisor.
Genesis’s successful financings were done in conjunction with a 5-for-1 share consolidation and the appointment of Terry as CEO. Rollbacks have a bad reputation — and rightly so — but consolidations done in conjunction with management changes and large financings can set the stage for success. Great Bear is another example of a successful rollback, its tight share structure helping to propel the stock post-discovery.
Chevrier is located in a prolific district of high-grade gold resources. Directly to the southwest is the Monster Lake gold discovery, where JV partners IAMGOLD and TomaGold have identified an Inferred resource of 433,000 ounces at 12.14 g/t gold. At the Nelligan project further southwest, Vanstar has delineated 3.1 million ounces of gold (Inferred) at about 1 g/t but last year hit 6 metres grading 56.46 g/t Au. IAMGOLD recently increased its interest in the project to 75%.
South of Chevrier, the Joe Mann gold mine produced 1.2 million ounces of gold at 8.26 g/t, as well as silver and copper. Infrastructure is excellent at Chevrier: a highway and power line runs through the property and the regional airport is a few minutes drive to the north.
With Discovery Group backing, a strong management and technical team, and a full treasury to drill high-grade gold targets at Chevrier, Genesis has laid the foundation for success. And high-grade gold discoveries get rewarded by the market, even in these tumultuous times for juniors.
Genesis Metals (GIS-V) Price: 0.18 Shares outstanding: 43.76 million (59M fully diluted) Market cap: $7.9 million
Disclosure: James Kwantes owns Genesis Metals shares and Genesis is one of three Resource Opportunities sponsor companies. Genesis is a speculative, high-risk exploration stock that may not be suitable for all investors. This article is not intended as financial advice and all investors should conduct their own due diligence and/or consult an investment advisor.
Assays are pending for holes drilled this season at Iron Mountain and Camp Zone, two of Group Ten’s most advanced targets at the Stillwater West PGE-copper-nickel project in south-central Montana. I initiated coverage on Group Ten in the Oct. 9, 2017 newsletter and recently went on a site visit to the company’s 54-square-kilometre Stillwater West property. The visit reinforced the enormous mineral potential and gave me a glimpse of some of the hurdles that will need to be cleared in order to create shareholder value.
I flew into Billings, Montana’s largest city with a population of about 110,000, and it was a one-hour drive to Red Lodge, where I stayed. Red Lodge is the “Gateway to Yellowstone Park” and nestled against the majestic Beartooth Mountains. With coal mining roots and a tourist flavour, Red Lodge has multiple bars alongside real estate offices, art galleries (with some mining-themed art) and stores selling MAGA gear.
It’s another hour’s drive to Nye (population 300), where Group Ten’s core facility and helicopter landing zone is located. Nye is also on the doorstep of the Stillwater mine complex, which has three producing mines that form the highest-grade major PGM deposit in the world. Group Ten inherited a vast amount of historical data on Stillwater West, including some 28,000 metres of drill core. Company geologists have re-evaluated about 12,000 metres of that core and some of that has been submitted for assay, in cases where it was not assayed or assayed for only certain metals.
Group Ten is that rare junior mining company that is on the radar of majors but still under the radar for most retail investors. Majors are interested because Stillwater West truly has the potential to host multiple economic deposits (overuse has rendered “district scale” an almost-meaningless cliche but it applies here). I believe Stillwater West hosts several bulk-tonnage deposits containing nickel and copper as well as platinum group metals, gold, rhodium, and cobalt.
And the company is closer to delineating deposits at Stillwater West than many people expect, because of the historical data and core (Group Ten’s qualified person, Mike Ostensen, was also QP for much of the prior drilling). According to their Oct. 31 news release, the company plans to publish mineral resource estimates at the three most advanced targets on the property: Iron Mountain, Camp Zone and Chrome Mountain.
Impression #1: It was quickly apparent that mining is part of this area’s DNA and it’s not just the Stillwater mine complex, a major employer. You can buy miner’s boots (among other more peculiar and charming items) at the general store in Fishtail, which has been open since 1900. Red Lodge was founded on coal; Nye used to be a copper mining camp. A short hike from one of Group Ten’s drill sites was a prospector’s cabin, near an old collapsed adit where the hermit used to hand-mine copper.
Group Ten first caught my attention in June 2017 when they acquired the Stillwater West PGE-nickel-copper project adjacent to the Stillwater mine in south-central Montana. A month before, South African miner Sibanye Gold had spent US$2.2 billion to buy Stillwater, rebranding as Sibanye Stillwater in a major diversification move out of South Africa. Much of the world’s palladium and platinum is mined in South Africa, but Stillwater is the world’s highest-grade PGM mining complex. The deposits host more than 105 million ounces of palladium and platinum (in all categories) at average grades of more than 12 g/t palladium and 3.5 g/t platinum.
The mineralization at Stillwater West is complex: the rocks are up to 2.7 billion years old, with multiple mineralization styles. Metal-rich magma was laid down layer after layer and cooled slowly, creating various deposit types. The closest analogue globally is Platreef in South Africa, the rich PGM-copper-nickel deposit that David Broughton played a key role in discovering (Broughton is a Group Ten advisor). And its mineral endowment makes Platreef one of the most valuable pieces of real estate on Earth.
Flying over Sibanye-Stillwater’s flagship mine (below) in a helicopter provided a good overview of the large operation. There were plenty of vehicles in the parking lot at the mill, which processes ore from three separate underground mines: Stillwater, East Boulder and Blitz. Local considerations are front and centre: a separate vast tailings pond located away from the mill site was built behind a bluff, making it all but invisible from the road.
Impression #2: Group Ten’s local knowledge at Stillwater West is a big edge. In addition to consolidating the previously splintered land package, Group Ten employs geologists with combined decades of experience working the project for prior operators. Chief geologist Craig Bow has 40 years of global experience as an economic geologist, including years of work at Stillwater from exploration to a production decision. Both project geologist Mike Ostenson and project geophysicist Justin Modroo (a professional extreme skier) are Montana natives; both men worked in the Stillwater complex for previous operators Premium Exploration and Beartooth Platinum. A small example of sensitivity to locals: the helicopter landing zone is a short ATV ride from the core shack, in a rural area where the flight path to the drills will cause the least disruption for residents.
With a helicopter-assisted drill program, Group Ten’s exploration costs are relatively high. (There are trails running to most of the drill locations but they are winding, time-consuming mountain ATV trails.) That makes dilution a major risk factor for Group Ten, but the company does have a few aces up its sleeve. Namely, in-the-money warrants that should help boost the treasury, as well as non-core assets in Yukon (Kluane PGE-Ni-Cu) and Ontario (Black Lake-Drayton Au) that CEO Mike Rowley is working to monetize.
There has been M&A action in the PGM sector, especially South African producers expanding outside of that (troubled) country. The latest was Impala Platinum’s $1-billion purchase of North American Palladium and its Lac des Iles PGM mine in Quebec. Majors also continue to be on the lookout for nickel and copper, which Group Ten has in abundance at Stillwater West. I was also intrigued to see Group Ten reference rhodium in its Oct. 31 NR headline and wonder if that’s a sign of good things to come. Rhodium is currently trading at about US$5,000 an ounce and palladium trades at US$1,833 an ounce, up almost 45% this year.
The path to shareholder profits for Group Ten probably involves doing a JV deal with a major mining company prepared to spend the money to turn Stillwater West into a drill-hole pin cushion and advance the deposits. That would leave Group Ten with a smaller slice of a very valuable project, which could still be worth many multiples of the current market capitalization. Execution will be key, but Group Ten could be sitting on if not a gold mine, multiple deposits containing PGMs, nickel, copper and cobalt. Upcoming catalysts include drill results and mineral resource estimates from three of the most advanced Stillwater West mineralized zones.
Group Ten Metals (PGE-V, PGEZF-OTC)
Price: 0.17 Shares out: 81.1 million (122M f-d) Market cap: $13.8 million
Disclosure: This report was published and sent to paid Resource Opportunities subscribers on Nov. 3, 2019. James Kwantes is a Group Ten Metals shareholder and the company covered costs associated with the site visit and for distribution. This report is for informational purposes only and all investors need to do their own research and due diligence.
By James Kwantes Editor and publisher, Resource Opportunities
Speculating in junior mining equities is a dangerous — and sometimes extremely lucrative — game. Some of the key qualities that lay the groundwork for shareholder value creation in an exploration play are:
Serially successful management
The right commodity, at the right time
Tight share structure.
Discovery drill plays carry both the most risk and potential reward. A discovery can create tremendous — even life-changing — shareholder value. But it’s only the drill — aka the “truth machine” — that will determine whether an economic ore body lurks beneath the surface. Orestone Mining Corp. (ORS-V) is funded to drill two large porphyry targets in British Columbia and Chile and has positioned itself for success by ticking the above boxes.
Next comes a drill program at Orestone’s Captain property, which is host to a large gold-copper porphyry target near Centerra’s Gold’s Mount Milligan copper-gold mine northwest of Prince George. Orestone plans to drill between up to 1,250 metres in 5 holes at its Admiral target. The project is located on flat terrain and accessible via logging roads, making year-round exploration possible.
Mobilizing the drill at the Captain project.
I initiated coverage on Orestone at 7 cents in Resource Opportunities on Sept. 26, 2018 and the stock has since traded as high as 25 cents. Shares now trade at 12.5 cents, giving the company a market capitalization of about $3 million — very modest compared to other cashed-up, high-potential drill plays. Orestone has about $700,000 in the treasury and is raising another $500,000 in flow-through funds to drill Captain. The company is selling 16-cent units, each of which includes one flow-through share and half a warrant (one-year, 22-cent).
Orestone has a clean share structure, with a serially successful management team advancing two high-calibre projects in neighbourhoods that host very large mines. Let’s take a closer look.
Orestone’s chairman and CEO David Hottman and Gary Nordin, an Orestone director and senior consulting geologist, have deep industry experience with successful companies including Bema Gold, Eldorado Gold, Nevada Pacific Gold and Polaris Materials. All of those companies were acquired by larger companies except for Eldorado Gold.
Nordin, a co-founding director and VP of Bema, has been directly involved in several multi-million-ounce gold discoveries, including Refugio in Chile (6-8M oz). He was also a co-founder, director and VP of Eldorado, where he was involved in the Kisladag discovery in Turkey (12M oz) and La Colorada in Mexico (1M oz). Hottman owns about 5.3% of Orestone’s outstanding shares; Nordin owns 4.2%.
The latest team member is Bruce Winfield, appointed president on June 3, and I recently stopped by Orestone’s modest Vancouver offices to meet him. Winfield is a Spanish-speaking geologist who got his first taste of Latin America working on the Cerro Colorado porphyry deposit in Panama for Texas Gulf. He later spent three years working in Spain, including opening a Boliden office in Madrid.
When Winfield (right) returned to North America, Latin America was opening up to mining and his language and operations skills were in demand. He spent seven years working for Greenstone Resources, where he helped acquire and develop four deposits that later became producing mines. One of those was La Libertad gold mine in Nicaragua, the first asset sold after the defeat of the Sandinista government.
La Libertad later became one of B2Gold’s foundational assets (B2Gold recently sold La Libertad to Calibre Mining).
Winfield also spent two years working with Hottman and Nordin at Eldorado Gold, where he was VP Exploration. The focus during his first year there was to increase the resources at the La Colorada mine in Sonora, Mexico to expand production. La Colorada is now owned by Argonaut Gold.
During his second year at Eldorado, the company bought Gencor’s Brazilian and Turkish assets, which included nearly 24,000 square miles of exploration land including several small resources. Persistent exploration subsequently yielded the prolific Kisladag gold porphyry discovery. Winfield was most recently president and CEO of Defiance Silver (DEF-V), a Mexico-focused silver exploration company.
Orestone’s bench strength extends to the board. Director Julia Aspillaga is a Chilean national who played a key role in the development of the Refugio deposit for Bema Gold and also brought the group the Cerro Casale project, where a mineral reserve and resource of more than 23 million ounces of gold, 5.8 billion pounds of copper and 58 million ounces of silver has been drilled off. Barrick Gold and Newmont-Goldcorp are now 50-50 partners on the project.
Daniels is a mining engineer who graduated from the Colorado School of Mines and has worked in 13 countries and more than 50 projects with companies including Gustavson Associates and Caterpillar. Daniels worked on the startup of Bema Gold’s Champagne gold mine in Idaho, the company’s first producing asset, in 1989-90.
The flagship Captain project in northern British Columbia is a gold-copper porphyry target about 30 kilometres (18.6 miles) south of Centerra Gold’s open-pit Mount Milligan copper-gold mine. With drill permits in hand, Orestone is mobilizing the rig and plans to start drilling later this week, once the flow-through financing closes.
During the last drill program, in 2013, hole C13-03 hit a three-metre xenolith fragment of highly altered rock grading 1.9 g/t gold and 0.226% copper over three metres, within a post-mineral dyke.
Orestone’s Gary Nordin believes that fragment is a transported piece of a 2-kilometre by 1-kilometre monzonite porphyry body that correlates with an Induced Polarization (IP) anomaly. The drill will target that interpreted mineralized body with five initial drill holes and about 1,000 to 1,250 metres. The modest program has the potential to hit “pay dirt” — Mount Milligan to the north has proven and probable reserves of 4.7 million ounces of gold and 1.8 billion pounds of copper.
Geologists Gary Nordin, left, and Barney Bowen check out historic core.
The Resguardo project is an 11.3-square-mile copper-gold porphyry target that covers historic oxide copper workings northeast of Copiapo, Chile. A large IP chargeability anomaly under the oxide copper suggests there could be a sulphide copper porphyry at depth — theory that has never been tested. That’s the target for Orestone’s planned drill program.There are several giant gold and copper-gold deposits within 100 kilometres of Resguardo, including El Salvador (CODELCO), Cerro Casale (Barrick/Newmont-Goldcorp), Candelaria (Lundin Mining) and Maricunga (Kinross).
British Columbia has its detractors, but the province remains a favourable place to operate large mines. Australian gold giant Newcrest evidently thinks so, having recently purchased a 70% interest in Imperial Metals’ Red Chris mine for US$807 million. So does Teck, which operates copper and coal mines in B.C. and recently bought a 14% stake in B.C. copper-gold explorer Sun Metals.
As for Chile, the nation produces up to a third of the world’s copper and plenty of gold. Much of the metals come from giant deposits — of 5-30M oz gold and/or more than 5 million tonnes of contained copper. Chile is recognized as one of the most stable mining jurisdictions in the world. And in director Julia Aspillaga, Orestone has a capable operator with excellent in-country connections.
The gold market has come alive and looks better than it has in years — since 2013, to be precise. And back then, gold was on its way down after hitting US$1,900 an ounce. Copper has been weaker — along with the other base metals — on U.S.-China trade wars and growing fears about the health of the global economy. The civilization metal appears to be basing at the US$2.60 level. Copper’s long-term demand case remains intact, however, and a supply crunch is looming as legacy mines deplete their reserves and begin to shut down.
Orestone’s timing could be fortuitous. The company is focusing on a deposit type — gold-copper porphyrys — that is expected to produce an increasing amount of the world’s gold, according to a July 2014 article in the Society of Economic Geologists newsletter. Copper-gold porphyrys have only been mined since the 20th century. Orogenic gold deposits have been mined for thousands of years, while the Witwatersrand has been producing gold since the late 19th century. Production in the rich South African gold belt — an important gold source — has steadily declined since 1970.
Orestone has two planned drill programs in “elephant country” for porphyry deposits. With drilling success, the company projects could eventually contribute to global gold and copper production in already established mining camps. Owning Orestone shares gives you exposure to two large exploration plays and the potential for a dramatic rerating from this $3-million valuation.
Orestone Mining Corp. (ORS-V) Price: 0.125 Shares outstanding: 23.8 million (39.6M fully diluted) Market cap: $3 million
Disclosure: James Kwantes owns Orestone shares and the company is a sponsor of Resource Opportunities. Orestone is a lightly traded, high-risk junior exploration stock. This is not financial advice and all investors need to perform their own due diligence.
Recent discoveries, M&A in the Chibougamau mining district
By James Kwantes
Genesis Metals is one of three Resource Opportunities sponsor companies.
The history of major metals discoveries is rife with stories of deposits that were only uncovered when geologists looked beyond existing mineralization systems, or considered new models. Sometimes the best discoveries occur when exploration takes place off the beaten path — even when there are gold ounces underneath that path. An open mind sometimes opens doors, to both new discoveries and greater shareholder value.
For example, Ivanhoe’s Kamoa-Kakula copper deposit in the Democratic Republic of Congo was already one of the world’s richest and largest copper discoveries when company geologists decided to look further afield. In March 2017 they drilled a new discovery — Kakula West — 4 kilometres west of existing mineralization, making an already world-class deposit even richer.
More recently, Discovery Group company Great Bear Resources (GBR-V) drilled the Bear-Rimini discovery at its Dixie project in Red Lake, Ontario. Great Bear had been intercepting plenty of high-grade gold mineralization at its Hinge and Dixie Limb Zones, with a very pleasing 1-year stock chart to match. But the company’s push beyond areas of known mineralization led Great Bear to hit pay dirt with Bear-Rimini, drilling multiple shallow high-grade intercepts a full 2.5 kilometres away from existing gold zones.
Genesis Metals (GIS-V) has a long way to go before being mentioned in the same breath as Ivanhoe or Great Bear. But the company is utilizing a similar exploration ethos at its Chevrier gold project in Quebec’s Abitibi Greenstone Belt, 35 km southwest of Chibougamau. Genesis, also part of the Discovery Group, is in the middle of a property-wide till geochemical survey at the claims package. It’s an exploration method that has paid off for IAMGOLD, which is drilling the nearby Monster Lake and Nelligan high-grade gold discoveries with its JV partners.
Genesis recently expanded its Chevrier holdings to 275 square kilometres. The goal of the program is to identify high-grade drill targets in new areas, with a secondary focus on increasing grade and tonnage at existing deposits. Genesis’s market capitalization of $7.45 million is underpinned by a resource estimate of 395,000 ounces Indicated grading 1.45 g/t gold and 297,000 ounces Inferred grading 1.33 g/t (0.5 g/t cutoff for open pit, 0.95 g/t for underground). Genesis geologists believe there is yet-uncovered high-grade gold mineralization at Chevrier.
“The idea is to bring in fresh eyes to do systematic property-wide exploration, for the very first time,” said Genesis President Jeff Sundar, who was recently appointed CEO in a management shuffle that saw Adrian Fleming appointed chairman of the board (replacing Brian Groves). Fleming has been involved in discoveries around the world and was CEO and cofounder of Underworld Resources, which discovered and defined the White Gold deposit in Yukon. Underworld sold to Kinross for $138 million in 2010.
North Vancouver-based Vector Geological Solutions is running the property-wide soil sampling program. Vector and partner IOS are using a track-mounted sampling machine to take soil samples at 200-metre lines across the entire Chevrier property. The Fancamp Deformation Zone, the belt that hosts Chevrier, used to be covered by glaciers. Knowing the direction of the ice sheets and interpreting the shape and nature of the gold grains in the till will be key to evaluating the survey results. Geological mapping, prospecting and geophysics will follow, along with a potential drill program later this year.
For years, Quebec has been recognized as one of the best mining jurisdictions, globally. The province is keen to maintain that reputation and has invested billions of dollars into Plan Nord, the extensive infrastructure plan designed to open up the province’s vast north to mining and industry. As for Chevrier, the project is located in a mining-friendly area near major highways and a rail line, with an airport nearby. That’s a tick in the infrastructure box.
Quebec’s support extends to financial assistance for companies doing mining exploration work in the province. The Genesis exploration program is being funded by a $520,000 private placement that closed on May 30. Three Quebec government-sponsored investment funds participated for $350,000 of that total.
The Chibougamau district is heating up along with the gold price, which is trading at about US$1,400 an ounce but has shown strength of late. Encouragingly, Vector’s exploration methodology mirrors tools used by other companies that have successfully identified high-grade gold discoveries nearby. Those include the Monster Lake gold deposit southwest of Chevrier, which already hosts 433,000 ounces of gold (Inferred) at 12.14 g/t Au. Operator IAMGOLD and JV partners TomaGold (45%) and Quinto (5%) continue to hit intercepts above 20 g/t at Monster.
Vanstar’s Nelligan project, about 25 kilometres southwest of Chevrier, is also generating excitement. The latest assays at Nelligan, where IAMGOLD can earn up to an 80% interest, included 6 metres grading 56.5 g/t gold and 7.7 metres grading 7.02 g/t.
And there is an ongoing takeover battle between Osisko and Agnico Eagle that will result in a new neighbour for Chevrier. Osisko looks to have the upper hand: Chantrell Ventures, an Osisko vehicle that will be renamed O3 Mining, recently sweetened its bid for Alexandria Minerals. The move was in response to a hostile offer from Agnico, with both companies eyeing Alexandria’s Val d’Or land package. Alexandria also has the Fancamp property bordering Chevrier to the south and the Embry claims to the north.
Genesis has systematically built its land position and its latest acquisition was the Trenholme claims formerly held by Agnico Eagle. The gold mining company had hit mineralization there — including an intercept of 1.5 metres of 4.5 g/t gold — but shifted focus and let the claims lapse. Genesis picked up the block from a prospector who staked the claims after Agnico left.
Dan MacNeil, Vector’s founder and principal consultant, believes there is “probably some low-hanging fruit outside the resource.” MacNeil’s resume includes stints at Barrick Gold and Anglo American and his partner at Vector, Alan Wainwright, was a co-winner of the H.H. “Spud” Huestis prospecting award in 2013 for the exploration and development of Kaminak Gold’s Coffee gold deposit.
One of the other co-winners of the award was geologist Rob Carpenter, who is now a Genesis advisor. Carpenter co-founded and served as the first CEO of Kaminak Gold, which built the multi-million-ounce Coffee deposit and sold for $520 million to Goldcorp in 2016. Carpenter will be assisting Vector and Genesis in the hunt for high-grade at Chevrier.
People are key to any successful junior mining company and Genesis has a rock-solid roster. The Discovery Group has racked up several wins in a bear market, including Kaminak Gold (sold to Goldcorp), Northern Empire Resources (sold to Coeur Mining) and ongoing drilling success at Great Bear. Principals John Robins and Jim Paterson have come on as Genesis advisors and their impressive track records bode well for success. In addition to Carpenter, Genesis also added exploration geologist Garrett Ainsworth and engineer/financier Andrew Ramcharan as advisors late last year.
The company’s market cap of about $7.45 million is underpinned by the Chevrier resource, a majority of which is open-pittable. But it’s the prospect of high-grade gold intercepts on the expanded claims package — in a rich district with proven high-grade mineralization — that probably offers the most upside for Genesis shares.
Genesis Metals (GIS-V, GGISF-OTC) Price: 0.07 Shares outstanding: 109.3 million (132.2M fully diluted) Market cap: $7.45 million
Disclosure: Genesis Metals is a Resource Opportunities sponsor company and James Kwantes owns Genesis shares, which makes me biased. Genesis Metals is a high-risk junior exploration stock. All investors need to do their own due diligence and/or consult a qualified investment advisor.
Fremont Gold is a Resource Opportunities sponsor company.
“Hello, you’ve reached Rock Bottom.”
It was the greeting for those calling Mongo’s Rock Bottom Cafe, the popular expat bar opened by exploration geologist Dennis “Mongo” Moore and a partner in La Paz, Bolivia. That was in the early 1990s, before Bolivia became a rather unfriendly place to explore for mineral deposits. At the time, the country was a thriving centre for mineral exploration. And Mongo’s, in Bolivia’s capital city, was a gathering place for geologists and drillers from around the world.
It’s a curious name for a bar in a city situated 3,600 metres above sea level. But it may make perfect sense given the description of geology as “liquor and guessing” — immortalized in a Dilbert comic strip — combined with a sector in which gloomy lows are the companion to occasional euphoric highs.
These days, Moore is president of Fremont Gold (FRE-V), a Nevada-focused exploration company focused on new discoveries and drilling for gold on the doorstep of McEwen Mining’s (MUX-T) Gold Bar mine in the Battle Mountain-Eureka-Cortez trend of northern Nevada.
Fremont is on the eve of a 1,000-metre drill program at Gold Canyon, one of the satellite pits to the original Gold Bar mine. The other satellite pits are owned by McEwen Mining, which comprise McEwen’s Gold Bar mine — expected to begin production this quarter. Fremont recently cut short a drill program at the original Gold Bar after the first three holes failed to intersect significant mineralization.
The company will also undertake a discovery drill program this summer at its North Carlin project at the northern end of the Carlin trend. Drilling will target a gold and mercury soil anomaly that is coincident with a magnetic high. At least 1,000 metres of drilling is planned.
LOCKING UP LAND IN A TOP JURISDICTION
Last September, Fremont announced it had acquired the Roberts Creek claim block about a kilometre south of McEwen’s Gold Bar mine, taking its holdings in the neighbourhood to 5,348 hectares. Recently concluded magnetic and soil surveys revealed geophysical and geochemical anomalies at Roberts Creek that coincide with multiple faults, according to a Feb. 22 Fremont news release.
The company is more than a McEwen “closeology” play. Moore really likes the company’s North Carlin property, a package of three claim blocks directly on the northern end of the Carlin trend (about two km north of the Rossi mine). Fremont optioned one claim block from Ely Gold Royalties and staked the rest.
Moore is an Aussie-American who landed in Vancouver from the jungles of the Amazon and now makes his home in Lisbon, Portugal. He’s assembled a strong team at Fremont. Clay Newton, the VP Exploration, is a PhD structural geologist with decades of experience in Nevada and California. Last year, Fremont brought in Blaine Monaghan as CEO and director. Monaghan has raised more than $100 million for mining projects around the world and was most recently the VP Corporate Development for Allegiant Gold (AUAU-V), the Nevada-focused spinout of Columbus Gold (CGT-T).
As for Moore (right), the geologist has hit a few bottoms himself and bounced back — both before and after the Bolivian bar venture. He got a BSc in geology/earth sciences at the University of Oregon, where his love of exploration included mountaineering. Moore moved to Australia in 1981 and eventually joined the gold rush that was sweeping through the southwest Pacific (Australia was where he picked up the “Mongo” moniker). Working as a contract geologist based out of Australia, Moore got his first taste of jungle exploration in Papua New Guinea. Those were early days for mineral exploration in PNG. On one expedition, Moore encountered a group of local children who fled in fear because they had never seen a white man with blue eyes. Moore got malaria twice.
His Australia stint coincided with one of mining’s cyclical slowdowns, and Moore obtained a master of environmental engineering from the University of Sydney. What followed was an unsatisfactory foray into environmental engineering — and commuting through heavy Sydney traffic to an office job. That experience and a divorce left Moore itching to return to his first love: exploration. Opportunity knocked when Moore was contacted by David O’Connor, Ross Beaty’s Latin American business partner, who was looking for Spanish-speaking exploration geologists in Bolivia. Moore knew O’Connor from a one-year stint in Fiji, and the geologist was soon en route to Latin America.
FRIENDS IN LOW PLACES ON A LONELY PLANET
Moore landed in La Paz in October 1993 and quickly connected with the large expat geo community, usually over drinks. With only one decent bar in downtown La Paz, a French cafe, “We said, why don’t we open up our own geo-expat bar,” Moore recalled. He and a partner did, and the following year, Mongo’s opened (with the heavy lifting done by Moore’s new girlfriend Sherene, now his wife of 25 years). The bar soon became a centre for both gringo and Bolivian geologists and later, tourists.
Moore’s new home rekindled his interest in mountain climbing; he and friends used to tackle 6,500-metre mountains in multi-day treks. One of the mountains they climbed was Ancohuma (near Illampu), a 6,427-metre peak north of La Paz. After descending Ancohuma, Moore met Sherene at a hotel in the little town of Sorata. She was drinking tea with a female companion, and Moore — exhausted and sunburned after a fantastic but draining experience — was eager to return to La Paz for a celebratory dinner with his climbing companions.
“I said to Sherene, ‘come on, let’s head back to La Paz,’ Moore recalled.
“She said, ‘I’m drinking tea here, can’t we hang out for a bit.’ I said, ‘No, I want to get back before it gets too dark.’ ”
“The other woman looked at me like I was a cretin, and I kind of gave her a dirty look as well.”
“My wife reluctantly came along and she didn’t say a word until we were about 20 minutes down the road. She says, “Do you know who that was?”
I said, “No, and I don’t really give a shit.”
She says: “That’s the woman who writes the Lonely Planet guide for Bolivia,” Moore said with a laugh.
“When she finally came to visit the bar, I told her she had nice eyes, but of course she saw right through me.”
On the geological front, Moore went to work for Altoro Gold, a Ross Beaty company that was exploring for gold but later pivoted to platinum-palladium projects in Brazil. And it was in Brazil where Moore made his first big discovery, in 1996-97.
Northern Brazil was home to one of the world’s largest gold rushes in the 1980s and 90s, with more than 1 million people flocking to the region. The easy gold was largely gone by the time Moore arrived in late 1996, although he immediately heard about golden riches being unearthed in the “wild west of the Amazonian jungle.” One of the main centres of Amazonian gold production is the Tapajos river system, a major tributary of the Amazon in Para state. The system has produced an estimated 25 to 50 million ounces of gold over the past 50 years, making it the third-largest alluvial field in the world. At the time there was not a single industrial-scale gold mine in the region (even now there is only Serabi Gold’s 40,000-oz/yr Palito mine).
THE DAY THAT CHANGED MOORE’S LIFE
In mid-1997 Moore spent five weeks flying around in 30-year-old Cessnas visiting the major “garimpos” (artisanal mines) in the jungles of northern Brazil. He visited, sampled and photographed over 30 garimpos and ranked the 20 best prospects.
Moore’s No. 1 prospect was Tocantinzinho, a small hill with two pits on either side being worked by over 1,000 garimpeiros. It was one of his last stops. “As soon as I saw it, I thought holy shit, this looks good.” He took several channel samples on Aug. 23, 1997, an auspicious date — it was his daughter’s 10th birthday. The characteristics that stood out included the width of the stockwork veining in the saprolite and the number of garimpeiros working it.
“I was very excited about it and David (O’Connor) said, well let’s see how the numbers come up.” The two Tocantinzinho channel samples ran 36 metres at 2.68 g/t gold and 21 metres at 2.01 g/t.
“David came into my office and said, ‘I think you may have found a mine here.’ He was right, basically, and that changed my life.”
Altoro and the JV partner did a deal with the garimpeiros to secure the land package. The company used soil sampling to define a 400-m by 1-km gold-in-soil anomaly and did some auger drilling. However, the Bre-X scandal was in full bloom; in early 1998 Beaty fired virtually the entire Altoro gold exploration team (including Moore), eventually pulled the plug on Tocantinzinho and pivoted to platinum/palladium. Solitario later bought Altoro for the platinum/palladium project. Tocantinzinho was deemed expendable.
After a short solo motorcycle trip to southern Chile, Moore landed contract work in Peru with Barrick and later with Newmont before the work dried up completely. Moore relocated to New Jersey with his wife and again, tried a more conventional job in the environmental field. But he quickly tired of commuting two hours every day to a windowless brick building in a New Jersey industrial park and dealing with large corporate clients. One Sunday his wife was reading the New York Times and commented to Moore about an article on the rising gold price. The piece mentioned Minefinders, which was run by Mark Bailey — whom Moore had worked with in Bolivia. Moore reached out and was soon en route to Mexico. He went to work for Minefinders in the Sierra Madre of Mexico on a 9-month contract.
Over the years, Moore saw how the real money was made — he watched a friend strike out on his own, vend a copper project in northern Peru, and prosper. Inspired by the successful venture, Moore headed to Vancouver to try his luck and visited Alan Carter, who had been with RTZ in Bolivia and was at that time on the management path with BHP. They formed a partnership; Moore put out some feelers and discovered that Tocantinzinho was available from the original garimpeiro owners, whom he knew.
In early 2003, working from an Internet cafe in San Miguel de Allende, Moore negotiated a deal to option Tocantinzinho for $15,000 on signing. Three months later, he and Carter signed with a TSX-V junior for cash, shares and a hefty NSR. Moore sourced a drill and they began drilling 7 months later. The primary discovery hole was hole #4, which ran 170 metres at 1.72 g/t gold.
Exciting moments like this did not come along often. More often, it was small-town life in the jungle away from loved ones, not to mention missing the music, sports and culture of home. A celebration was in order — Moore and the day driller got drunk for three consecutive nights.
Retaining a valuable sliding-scale royalty was a sharp move for the business partners. In 2010, Eldorado Gold paid about $122 million to purchase Brazauro and the Tocantinzinho deposit, which now hosts about 2 million ounces at 1.42 g/t Au. Moore recently sold his share of the royalty for a tidy sum.
After 18 months managing Tocantinzinho, Moore and Carter formed Magellan Minerals and acquired the Cuiu Cuiu district 20 km northwest of Tocantinzinho. Cuiu Cuiu was arguably the largest garimpo in the Tapajos. Moore and a Brazilian partner had staked the area, which had produced more than 2 million ounces just from alluvials.
Moore spent the next 10 years living and working at Cuiu Cuiu and Itaituba, the nearest town which services the Tapajos region. Over the years he discovered about 1.5 million ounces of gold in three separate deposits. Cuiu Cuiu is now being advanced by Carter’s Cabral Gold (CBR-V), which has been finding higher-grade mineralization at the project. On February 28, Cabral announced an intercept of 3.4 metres grading 36.9 g/t gold. Moore is a Cabral director and a large shareholder; Carter is Fremont’s chairman and a large shareholder.
In the 1980s, Cuiu Cuiu was a Wild West boom town with no roads, a short airstrip, about 5,000 residents, a police force, more than 40 brothels, and killings every week. The Itaituba airport was one of the world’s busiest during that decade, with 300 takeoffs and landings daily and more than 1,100 flights on the single busiest day. Companies trying to acquire stakes in the area included majors such as Rio Tinto and Phelps Dodge and personalities including Eike Batista.
Moore and Carter secured the claims to Cuiu Cuiu by convincing the garimpeiros to come together in a coop, then negotiating a deal with them. It was a lengthy process that took most of 2005-2006 and had a successful outcome: “The powerful female garimpeira, Amerita, was the last holdout — I basically had to get down on my knees and beg her!” Moore recalled.
The first Cuiu Cuiu drill program in 2006 — while Moore and Carter’s company, Magellan Minerals, was still private — hit 131 metres of about 1 g/t gold. Magellan went public in early 2008 as the company drilled one of its best holes: 220 metres at 2.2 g/t Au. The share price jumped from a dollar to $2.20 on the news. Moore and Carter managed to keep Cuiu Cuiu when they sold Magellan in 2016 to Ross Beaty’s Anfield Nickel, which was more interested in Magellan’s Coringa gold deposit in the Alta Floresta district of Brazil. (Anfield subsequently sold the Coringa deposit to Serabi Gold; Anfield is now part of Beaty’s Equinox Gold.)
Back in Nevada, Moore sees Fremont Gold as a kind of double-barrelled play on gold exploration in one of the world’s most prolific districts. A small drill program at Gold Canyon (above) in the summer of 2018 saw Fremont hit 16.8 metres of 1.9 g/t Au and 18.3 metres of 1.1 g/t Au. The company hopes to build on that success in identifying further mineralization on McEwen Mining’s doorstep.
Moore is even more excited by the North Carlin properties that Fremont staked — and by the prospect of new discoveries in the western hemisphere’s most prolific gold belt: the Carlin trend. In a bear market that is disproportionately rewarding new discoveries and discovery plays, identifying a gold discovery in such a rich district would capture the market’s attention. Fremont is also on the lookout for a more advanced project, Moore said.
As for Mongo’s, the watering hole eventually made it into Lonely Planet and other popular travel guides. The bar was sold to Vancouverite Colin Little in 1997 but the popular establishment finally “hit rock-bottom” just last year when it closed its doors.
Fremont Gold (FRE-V) Price: 0.11 Shares outstanding: 53 million (67.2 million fully diluted) Market cap: $5.8 million
Disclosure: Fremont Gold is a Resource Opportunities sponsor company and James Kwantes owns Fremont Gold shares. This is not financial advice and all investors need to complete their own due diligence.
– New resource estimate shows 423,000 Au oz Indicated at 1.22 g/t Au and 303,000 Au oz Inferred (1.27 g/t) at Chevrier
– Genesis Metals joins Discovery Group; John Robins, Jim Paterson come on as strategic advisors
By James Kwantes Editor, Resource Opportunities
Genesis Metals is a Resource Opportunities sponsor company.
Chibougamau is Cree for “gathering place” and the First Nations hamlet in northern Quebec served as one long before French explorers and traders travelled the area in the 1600s.
Gold was discovered in 1903 and mining companies followed. Fast-forward 116 years and Chibougamau is now an important hub for the Quebec government’s Plan Nord, an economic development plan designed to open up the vast north of the province to new opportunities, particularly in mining. The initiative has elevated a jurisdiction that was already recognized as among the most mining-friendly in the world.
Genesis Metals’ Chevrier gold project is about 35 kilometres southwest of Chibougamau at the western end of the prolific Abitibi Greenstone Belt, a structure that has produced more than 180 million ounces of gold. Mining operations in the region include Stornoway Diamond Corp.’s Renard mine and the Monster Lake high-grade gold project, a JV between Toma Gold and IAMGOLD.
And Genesis continues to gather ounces at Chevrier, in the Abitibi’s Fancamp Deformation Corridor. An updated resource estimate published February 4 shows 423,000 ounces Indicated at 1.22 g/t gold and another 303,000 ounces Inferred at 1.27 g/t gold at the Main Zone and East Zone at Chevrier. Average grades have decreased because Genesis moved to a lower cut-off grade (0.3 g/t in-pit, 0.95 g/t u-g) for the resource update.
The resource update establishes Chevrier as a growing open-pittable deposit with higher-grade underground and discovery possibilities, says Genesis chairman and CEO Brian Groves.
“This resource is a significant milestone in the history of Chevrier. We have developed a robust model for gold mineralization in the Main Zone with multiple new targets elsewhere on the property,” Groves said. “With our recently strengthened technical team, we will now explore the potential for expansion of the mineralized envelopes as well as other targets on the 130-square-km property.”
Joining John Robins’ Discovery Group should help Genesis tap into talent and open doors. Robins and Discovery Group principal Jim Paterson have joined Genesis as strategic advisors. The group, founded by Robins in 2005, has an impressive record of creating shareholder value in a dismal market, including:
the $520-million sale of Kaminak to Goldcorp in 2016;
the 2018 sale of Northern Empire Resources to Coeur Mining for $117 million;
Great Bear Resources has been a junior mining standout, with a 1-year return of more than 600% on bonanza-grade gold discoveries at its Dixie project in Ontario’s Red Lake district.
Paterson has already been key to helping Sundar build out the Genesis team. Paterson tapped into his extensive network to attract three experienced operators for the Genesis technical team: geologists Rob Carpenter and Garrett Ainsworth and engineer/financier Andrew Ramcharan. The trio joined the advisory board in November. Each should help unlock further value at Chevrier, including potential new discoveries.
Carpenter and Ainsworth are familiar names to Canadian mining investors. Carpenter was a co-founder and the former CEO of Kaminak Gold and key to identifying the 5-million-ounce Coffee gold deposit purchased by Goldcorp. Among other ventures he is a director of White Gold, where he is helping legendary Yukon prospector Shawn Ryan explore the White Gold district between Coffee and the Klondike goldfields.
As for Ainsworth, the exploration geologist’s greatest accomplishments have been in the western Athabasca Basin. As VP Exploration for Alpha Minerals, Ainsworth discovered the Patterson Lake South uranium deposit now being advanced by Fission Uranium (which bought Alpha). Ainsworth then spent four years at NexGen Energy as VP Exploration and Development, a period that saw NexGen’s shares soar from 30 cents to above $4.00 as it expanded the ultra-high-grade Arrow uranium deposit in Saskatchewan.
Andrew Ramcharan, an engineer and graduate of the Colorado School of Mines, was Managing Director of Project Evaluation for debt and equity financings at Sprott Inc. He also worked with IAMGOLD on M&A. Stephen Williams, a metallurgical engineer who is Vice-President of Corporate Development and Investor Relations for Bluestone Resources, has also joined the Genesis board of directors. He previously worked for Canaccord Genuity as a director of the metals and mining investment banking team.
Quebec has earned a reputation as one of the world’s best mining jurisdictions. Now, the province’s Plan Nord has opened up Quebec’s vast north, providing linkages to already exceptional infrastructure in Chevrier’s immediate neighbourhood (the Abitibi’s Fancamp Deformation Corridor). The Genesis gold project is near major highways and a rail line, and has a regional road running through it, as well as an airport nearby. The solid infrastructure in a safe jurisdiction tick off two of the main boxes for both investors and potential suitors.
Jeff Sundar, the president of Genesis, is younger than most mining execs. But he has been working in the sector long enough to see cycles come and go. Sundar has also experienced M&A success, in both 2010 and 2018. He was a director of Underworld Resources, which was acquired by Kinross for $138 million in July 2010 for its White Gold deposit in west-central Yukon (now owned by White Gold Corp). More recently, Northern Empire Resources — where Sundar was on the board — and its Sterling gold project was acquired by Coeur Mining for $117 million.
But the years between those takeovers were mostly punishing, for Genesis and the whole sector. Genesis completed a successful 10,000-metre drill program in 2017 that firmed up the resource at the Main Zone and identified new target areas. But the company received little recognition for it in the market, even though most intercepts were within 150 metres of surface. The final assays, announced Jan. 22, 2018, included some of the best mineralization yet:
21.35 metres of 8.73 g/t gold including 3 metres of 37.97 g/t;
22.6 metres of 3.59 g/t Au;
19.4 metres of 4.26 g/t Au including 7.8 metres of 8.99 g/t.
The program helped Genesis develop a new geological model that laid the foundation for the resource update. Company geologists followed up this past summer with a surface prospecting and mapping program that defined extensions to Main Zone mineralization and identified new target areas. The work was funded by Quebec investment funds that provide assistance to active junior exploration companies in the province.
As for the price of gold, Sundar believes the timing could be right. Gold equities have seldom been cheaper relative to the price of gold, he pointed out.
“Generalist interest is returning to the space,” Sundar said. “People are starting to look at gold and gold equities again. With new team members providing a fresh look at our Chevrier deposit, including the potential for new discoveries, Genesis is well-positioned to capitalize.”
Genesis shares sank as low as 6 cents during tax-loss selling season in December. The stock has since rebounded to the 8-cent level, giving Genesis a market capitalization of about $8.15 million.
Genesis Metals (GIS-V) Price: 0.08 Shares outstanding: 101.8 million (137.7 million fully diluted) Market cap: $8.15 million
Disclaimer: James Kwantes owns Genesis shares and Genesis Metals is a Resource Opportunities sponsor company. Readers are advised that this article is solely for information purposes. Readers are encouraged to conduct their own research and due diligence, and/or obtain professional advice. The information is based on sources which the publisher believes to be reliable, but is not guaranteed to be accurate, and does not purport to be a complete statement or summary of the available data.
Long before Hollywood directors made it a favoured setting for westerns … before Pancho Villa rose from the poverty of a hacienda there to become an important Revolutionary general … the Mexican state of Durango was a major center for global silver production.
Understanding silver’s role in Mexico – formerly part of “New Spain” – requires stepping back about 500 years. The precious metal has been mined in Durango since the time of the Spanish conquest, more or less continuously. Silver enriched the Spanish king and bolstered the treasury, helping fund wars against European rivals. It also funded a magnificent cathedral that still stands in the state capital, also named Durango. And coins minted from Mexican silver soon became a global currency.
One of the sources of that mineral wealth was Avino, the “mountain of silver” on the eastern flank of the Sierra Madre mountains outside of the city of Durango. It’s an ore body now being mined by Vancouver-based Avino Silver & Gold Mines (ASM-T). Avino produces silver, as well as gold and copper, from two underground mines: the main Avino deposit and San Gonzalo, a small higher-grade deposit about two kilometres away.
The metal remains a major export for Mexico, and Avino’s silver still makes its way around the world. But these days, it’s purchased by a division of Samsung. Samsung C&T purchases all of Avino’s production at spot prices and ships it to smelters in Asia.
Avino was founded by current CEO David Wolfin’s father Lou Wolfin (right), who in 1968 bought a 49% stake in the mothballed Mexican mine — which had closed in 1912 due to the Mexican Revolution. The joint venture put the mine back into production, and Avino later purchased the remaining stake from the Mexican family that owned it. Avino’s 50-year history is one of the features that sets the company apart in a junior mining sector where longevity is typically measured in years, not decades.
CEO David Wolfin’s roots at Avino run deep, too — as a teenager, he worked in the underground mine. Lou Wolfin, who died on March 3, 2017 at age 85, was an entrepreneur and inventor who showed a willingness to invest where others feared to tread. And although the company founder’s path to silver mining in Durango started on Howe Street, it began with a detour through Beverly Hills.
That’s where the elder Wolfin met Mexican entrepreneur Fernando Ysita at a party in the late 1960s. The chance Hollywood encounter led to forays into Mexico and eventually, a major investment. Avino purchased a 49-per-cent stake (the maximum allowed) in 1968 when Mexico re-opened to foreign investment. The company later bought the rest of the mine from the Ysita family.
Lou Wolfin was a contemporary of Murray Pezim and a bit of a legend in Vancouver business circles. A former stockbroker, Wolfin bought a seat on the Vancouver Stock Exchange in 1960 and later opened a Vancouver brokerage house. His entrepreneurial instincts extended far beyond mining – he owned the patent on holograms and developed a keyless door-lock entry system decades before those became common.
But it’s in mining that the elder Wolfin’s legacy is felt most acutely. He wasn’t there to see it, but Avino celebrated its 50-year milestone at the Vancouver Resource and Investment Conference in January. Among those at the party were employees who had been there from the beginning, as well as a contingent from Samsung headquarters in Seoul, South Korea.
I toured the Avino mines — which also produce gold and copper concentrates — on a site visit to Durango late last year. After flying into the state capital of Durango via Mexico City, we shuttled to the Hotel Gobernador, a hacienda that was formerly a state prison (complete with bullet holes on one of the outer walls). Our group, mostly German investors and analysts, was hosted by Avino CEO David Wolfin, COO Carlos Rodrigues and investor relations manager Jennifer North.
The mine is about an hour-and-a-half drive through towns and a countryside that looks familiar thanks to westerns such as How The West Was Won and Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid. The city of Durango has its own walk of fame featuring Hollywood stars on the sidewalk and several bronze statues including John Wayne — The Duke totes a rifle missing its barrel. (John Candy died of a heart attack in the city in 1994 during a break from filming Wagons East.)
At the mine, silver, gold and copper concentrates are processed using a flotation circuit from ore mined at Avino and San Gonzalo. For the last three years, production has held steady at or above the 2.7 million ounces silver-equivalent produced in 2017 (2.68M AgEq oz in 2016, 3M AgEq oz in 2015).
But a project under construction when I visited and now largely complete should hike that total significantly: the fourth mill circuit. That circuit — with a ball mill purchased from a Quebec mine — is now complete and set to process ore in the first quarter of 2019. The circuit is projected to boost capacity by about 70%, to 2,500 tonnes per day. Once the fourth circuit is commissioned, it will process ore from the San Luis (expansion) area of the Avino mine.
Avino announced Q3 2018 production on Oct. 15 and the company’s silver-equivalent production dropped by 7% year-over-year, to 704,429 ounces AgEq. Avino produced 342,151 ounces of silver (down 7% YOY), 2,204 ounces of gold (down 18% YOY) and 992,271 pounds of copper (down 10% YOY). The lower production and declining grades are partly because San Gonzalo is reaching the end of its mine life as Avino transitions to San Luis ore.
About 90 per cent of Avino’s workers live in villages a short drive away from the mine. The local workers have been a constant for the last five centuries – the jobs pay well and are highly coveted. It’s quite a contrast to the fly-in, fly-out contract mining methods at many modern mines. That helps on the community relations front, in addition to Avino’s decades-long presence there.
The Sinaloa cartel operates in Durango but our group travelled without guards or security, and neither is there a visible security presence at the mine. There are signs of a cartel presence if you pay attention, however, in and around Durango. The police station outside the city is built high on a hill and resembles a fortress. A prison we passed also looked seriously secure.
At the mine site, our group of analysts, investors and newsletter writers donned waterproof protective and safety gear and descended into both mines, the temperature rising with each lower level. It was vaguely reminiscent of the silver price, which has fallen more or less consistently and is now stuck at US$14 after running to almost $50 an ounce in April 2011.
That’s made it tough for silver producers to make money, and Avino is no exception. The company is also in expansion mode; there are exploration drilling projects at both the Avino mine and at the company’s Bralorne project in British Columbia. Avino is also investigating the economics of processing oxide tailings at Avino. It all costs money, and Avino recently raised US$4.6 million through the sale of 65-cent (US) units.
Each unit consisted of one 65-cent share and a full five-year warrant exercisable at 80 cents. But the financing was announced with shares at 79 cents US, and the below-market pricing prompted a selloff in the stock. In conjunction with Q3 production numbers, released October 15, Avino announced cost-reduction initiatives (capital, operating and administrative) at its operations in Mexico and British Columbia.
There are other examples in Avino’s neighbourhood of how silver’s struggles have hit other producers. Nearby is Coeur Mining’s mothballed Preciosa silver deposit, purchased for $382 million from Orko Silver in 2013. That deal was done with silver at about US$30 an ounce.
Growing production from the fourth circuit gives Avino good leverage to rising silver prices. When that occurs is anybody’s guess, but the silver price has a track record of bouncing hard when it reverses. One measure suggestive of a silver bull market is the gold-silver ratio, which is above 80 and near a historical record. Silver has made outsized returns each time it has reached these levels.
Avino also has leverage to gold at Bralorne, its under-the-radar Canadian project. Bralorne is nestled amid rugged mountains in British Columbia’s South Chilcotin range. It was the epicenter of a major gold mining camp that produced 4.2 million ounces of gold between 1928 and 1971. The three adjacent mines — Bralorne, Pioneer and King — produced extremely high-grade ore. Average head grades were above 0.5 ounces per tonne, or 14 g/t gold — multiples of global mined grades that are now below 1 g/t Au.
Bralorne, where Avino is in the middle of a fully funded 28,000-metre drill program, has the potential to become the flagship and a company maker, if things work out. The project already hosts a state-of-the-art water treatment system and dozens of kilometres of underground workings as well as brand-new mining equipment. The latter equipment — including two scoop trams and a jumbo drill — was purchased as part of a prior plan to start small and ramp up production. The company now plans to focus on expanding the historical resource before starting up a larger mine.
As with Avino, Lou Wolfin played a key role in securing the property, including the historical mine workings. Wolfin bought the Bralorne-Pioneer Mines from Homestake and brought it into Avino in 1990. He got Bralorne running at 100 tonnes per day (in a separate company) but the mine shut down due to low silver prices. Bralorne was brought back into Avino in 2014.
Avino funded the drill program through a $6-million flow-through financing priced at $2.00 (Cdn) per share. The drill program is the most extensive in the project’s history, and includes both exploration and resource drilling. The company is using two drill rigs; assay results should start landing in the first quarter of 2019.
The existing Bralorne resource, announced on Oct. 21, 2016, is 91,528 ounces Measured and Indicated at average grades of 0.33 oz/t gold (9.36 g/t) and 83,900 ounces Inferred at 0.22 oz/t gold (6.2 g/t).
Independent geoscientist Garth Kirkham of Kirkham Geosystems completed the NI 43-101 resource model and also played a major role in designing the current drill program. Kirkham is an award-winning geoscientist known for his resource estimation and 3D modelling work. He has worked extensively with John Robins’ Discovery Group companies, including Kaminak Gold (acquired by Goldcorp) and Bluestone Resources (BSR-V). The drilling follows structural modelling and geological mapping as well as airborne and ground geophysics.
Avino’s investment proposition is that of a stable silver producer with growing, lower-grade deposits and a call option on high-grade gold at Bralorne, where drill assays could provide catalysts for the share price.
Avino Silver and Gold Mines (ASM-T)
Price: 0.75 Shares outstanding: 63.3 million (75.5 million fully diluted) Market cap: $47.5 million
Disclosure: James Kwantes has been compensated by Avino Silver & Gold Mines to produce this article and Avino paid for costs of the site visit to Mexico. Avino Silver & Gold Mines is not a Resource Opportunities portfolio company. This article is for informational purposes and does not constitute investment advice. All investors need to do their own due diligence.
James Kwantes is the editor of Resource Opportunities, a subscriber supported junior mining investment publication. Mr. Kwantes has two decades of journalism experience and was the mining reporter at the Vancouver Sun. Twitter: @JamesKwantes
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Resource Opportunities (R.O.) is an investment newsletter founded by geologist Lawrence Roulston in 1998. The publication focuses on identifying early stage mining and energy companies with the potential for outsized returns, and the R.O. team has identified over 30 companies that went on to increase in value by at least 500%. Professional investors, corporate managers, brokers and retail investors subscribe to R.O. and receive a minimum of 20 issues per year. Twitter: @ResourceOpp